President’s Tax Proposal Takes Aim At Carried Interest of Venture Funds

In what could be a serious blow to the venture fund industry, the President’s tax proposals contemplate taxing carried interest as ordinary income, subject to ordinary income tax rates and self employment taxes.

The proposal states that it “is not intended to adversely impact qualification of a real estate investment trust owning a carried interest in a real estate partnership.”

Excerpt from a summary of the President’s proposal is below.  You can also find them on pages 25 and 26 of this document.


Current Law

A partnership is not subject to federal income tax. Instead, income and loss of the partnership retains its character and flows through to its partners, who must include such items on their tax returns. Generally, certain partners receive partnership interests in exchange for contributions of cash and/or property, while certain partners (not necessarily other partners) receive partnership interests, typically interests in future profits (“profits interests”) in exchange for services. Accordingly, if and to the extent a partnership recognizes long-term capital gain, the partners, including partners who provide services, will reflect their shares of such gain on their tax returns as long-term capital gain. If the partner is an individual, such gain would be taxed at the reduced rates for long-term capital gains. Gain recognized on the sale of a partnership interest, whether it was received in exchange for property, cash or services, is generally treated as capital gain.

Under current law, income attributable to a profits interest of a general partner is generally subject to self-employment tax, except to the extent the partnership generates types of income that are excluded from self employment taxes, e.g., capital gains, certain interest and dividends.

Reason for Change

Although profits interests are structured as partnership interests, the income allocable to such interests is received in connection with the performance of services. A service provider’s share of the income of a partnership attributable to a carried interest should be taxed as ordinary income and subject to self-employment tax because such income is derived from the performance of services. By allowing service partners to receive capital gains treatment on labor income without limit, the current system creates an unfair and inefficient tax preference. The recent explosion of activity among large private equity firms has increased the breadth and cost of this tax preference, with some of the highest-income Americans benefiting from the preferential treatment.


A partner’s share of income on a “services partnership interest” (SPI) would be subject to tax as ordinary income, regardless of the character of the income at the partnership level. Accordingly, such income would not be eligible for the reduced rates that apply to long-term capital gains. In addition, the proposal would require the partner to pay self-employment taxes on such income. Gain recognized on the sale of an SPI would generally be taxed as ordinary income, not as capital gain.

An SPI is a carried interest held by a person who provides services to the partnership. To the extent that the partner who holds an SPI contributes “invested capital” and the partnership reasonably allocates its income and loss between such invested capital and the remaining interest, income attributable to the invested capital would not be recharacterized. Similarly, the portion of any gain recognized on the sale of an SPI that is attributable to the invested capital would be treated as capital gain. “Invested capital” is defined as money or other property contributed to the partnership. However, contributed capital that is attributable to the proceedsof any loan or other advance made or guaranteed by any partner or the partnership is not treated as “invested capital.”

Also, any person who performs services for an entity and holds a “disqualified interest” in the entity is subject to ordinary income tax on any income or gain received with respect to the interest. A “disqualified interest” is defined as convertible or contingent debt, an option, or any derivative instrument with respect to the entity (but does not include a partnership interest or stock in certain taxable corporations). This is an anti-abuse rule designed to prevent the avoidance of the proposal through the use of compensatory arrangements other than partnership interests.

The proposal is not intended to adversely impact qualification of a real estate investment trust owning a carried interest in a real estate partnership.

The proposal would be effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2010.

About Joe Wallin

Joe Wallin focuses on emerging, high growth, and startup companies. Joe frequently represents companies in angel and venture financings, mergers and acquisitions, and other significant business transactions. Joe also represents investors in U.S. businesses, and provides general counsel services for companies from startup to post-public.
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