Where Do I File My 83(b) Election?

Where Do I File My 83(b) ElectionIf you have never filed a Section 83(b) election before, you might not know where to file it.

Increasingly, founders come to me who have been filing their Forms 1040 electronically. Many of these founders have never filed paper returns, and when I tell them they have to file the 83(b) election with the office of the IRS at which they file their returns, they don’t know what I am talking about. Because they haven’t been mailing in their Forms 1040, they don’t know where to file a Section 83(b) election.

They say to me: “I have e-filed the last few years so I actually don’t have an address when I look at my returns.”

The IRS Regulations make clear where you are required to file the 83(b) election.  They provide as follows:

“The election referred to in paragraph (a) of this section is made by filing one copy of a written statement with the internal revenue office with whom the person who performed the services files his return.”

If you don’t know where to find the physical address, you can refer to the instructions in Form 1040.

You can find these instructions at www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/i1040.pdf. At the time of this blog post, the places to file were found on page 104.

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What is a Valuation Cap?

valuation capBy Adam Lieb and Joe Wallin

If you are contemplating raising money through the issuance of convertible notes, you might be wondering – what is a valuation cap?

Convertible notes are designed to convert into equity of the issuing company upon a subsequent financing (usually referred to in the note as a “qualified financing”; e.g., when the company raises more than $1M dollars in new capital). Without a cap or discount (not discussed here), the notes would typically convert into the issuing company’s equity in the subsequent financing at the same price as the equity issued in that financing.

For publicly available example promissory notes, you can see here:

A “valuation cap” entitles note holders to convert into equity at the lower of the valuation cap or the price in the subsequent financing. You can find an example of this provision in both of the above documents.

  • In the Alliance of Angels note, you can find the valuation cap language in Section 4. The pertinent language reads as follows:

the outstanding Principal Amount and accrued interest under the Notes shall automatically convert into shares of the same series of preferred stock as is issued in the Qualified Financing at a conversion price equal to the lesser of (a) the price obtained by multiplying (i) the price per share paid in the Qualified Financing by (ii) the applicable Conversion Percentage (as defined below); or (b) the price obtained by dividing (i) [VALUATION CAP] (the “Valuation Cap”).

  • In the TechStars note, you can find the language is as follows:

outstanding principal balance of this Note shall automatically convert in whole without any further action by the Holder into such Equity Securities at a conversion price equal to [the lesser of (i)] ____% of the per share price paid by the Investors [or (ii) the price equal to the quotient of $__________ divided by the aggregate number of outstanding shares of the Company’s Common Stock as of immediately prior to the initial closing of the Qualified Financing (assuming full conversion or exercise of all convertible and exercisable securities then outstanding other than the Notes)]


Suppose you have raised $200,000 in convertible notes.  The notes have no discount but a valuation cap of $5M, and they are set to convert upon a subsequent raise of greater than $1M.  You then succeed in raising $2M in Series A funding on a $10M pre-money valuation of $10M.

What happens to the notes?  At what price do they convert?  How many Series A shares do you issue for the note amounts?

Let’s suppose your pre-Series A cap table looks like this:

Pre-Series A Cap Table

Number of Shares

% Ownership Interest




Option Pool





Your post-Series A cap table would then look like this:

Post-Series A Cap Table

Number of Shares

% Ownership Interest




Option Pool



Series A Investors



Series A (convertible note holders)





The price per share for the convertible note holders converting into Series A will be the valuation cap of $5M divided by the same 2,350,000, or $2.13 per share (rounding up).  Assuming a $200,000 loan, the convertible note holder will receive 93,896 shares (assuming no interest on the notes, for the sake of simplicity).

The price per share for the Series A investors will be the $10M pre-money divided by the fully diluted number of outstanding shares immediately prior to the closing (2,350,000), or $4.26 per share (rounding up).  Assuming a $2M investment, the Series A investors will receive 469,483 shares.

You can see from these tables the benefit of the “cap” to the convertible note holders.  Without a cap in this instance the debt holders would have received half as many shares. This makes sense because in my example the valuation cap was exactly ½ of the pre-money valuation in the subsequent financing.

You can also see why debt holders like valuation caps.  They especially like them when it is their opinion that it is their early stage debt money that allows the company to achieve the high pre-money valuation on the subsequent fixed price round. You can certainly see the view point of the convertible note holders in these situations that they ought to participate in that healthy pre-money valuation through the cap mechanism if it was their funds which made it possible.

From the company’s point of view, valuation caps can be a pain, because they are one more thing to negotiate.  One of the reasons you do a convertible note in the first place, rather than a fixed price round, is to avoid having to set a value for the company.  If the cap is supposed to represent the current value of the company (the typical investor view), then you haven’t accomplished putting off the valuation negotiation at all, and it is possible you might get bogged down in an argument about it.

[1] See this blog post from Dan Shapiro, “A Cap is Not a Valuation

Founder viewpoint:  Caps are a necessary evil when raising convertible notes in the current climate. Valuation caps limit crazy situations, for example, the valuation goes up 5-10x. In these situations, without a cap the early stage investors would not be adequately rewarded for their risk. Therefore, they need a cap to put a floor on their price. In most situations a discount on the subsequent round will reward those investors. For example an uncapped note + a 50% discount at the seed stage will ensure that seed stage investors see a 2x paper return on the next round. Caps are NOT valuations.[1]  Entrepreneurs should not let investors get away with the argument that they are. Caps protect investor’s upside risk by setting a floor on their purchase price.

Posted in Startup Jargon/Definitions | Tagged , , , | 15 Comments

Maximizing Success in European Markets with Osborne Clarke

Maximizing Success in European MarketsGone are the days of waiting until your company is public before you start looking for opportunities overseas. Europe is a strong market with very similar culture and welcomes the tech sector.

If Europe is the next step for your business, Steve Wilson and Sian Story will cover the essential tips and tricks you need know to make a smoother entrance, including:

  • How to structure and establish your European business.
  • Correct methods in hiring international talent.
  • Protecting your product and your brand.
  • Other regulatory and legal issues which can distract rapidly expanding companies.

Steve Wilson and Sian Story are UK qualified lawyers based in Osborne Clarke’s Silicon Valley office, and have spent years advising US companies on the issues arising from European expansion.  

Register Here


    Tuesday, February 25, 2014
    7:30 a.m.


    Davis Wright Tremaine
    1201 Third Avenue Suite 2200
    Seattle, WA 98101

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Reduce Potential Liability for Data Breaches

Reduce Potential Liability for Data BreachesDWT partner Randy Gainer gave a presentation entitled “How to Improve Data Security and Reduce Potential Liability for Data Breaches.” The presentation focused on the following topics:

  • The risks of cyber attacks
  • Choosing cost-effective security measures
  • Evaluating cyber insurance coverage

Listen to the Webinar

Reduce Potential Liability for Data Breaches Randy Gainer, Attorney, CISSP February 12, 2014

Randy Gainer is a partner in the Seattle office of Davis Wright Tremaine. He represents businesses in litigation and in state and federal administrative proceedings after the businesses have suffered data breaches.

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Meet Gary Ritner, Founder of the Puget Sound Venture Club

gary ritnerFounded in 1985, Puget Sound Venture Club (PSVC) is the oldest angel group in Seattle. Even prior to founding the organization, Gary has been a valuable resource and a supporter of the Northwest startup community. His stories are educational as well as entertaining. Moreover, it is his insight into the process of raising angel funds that make this a very special opportunity.

Register Here


    Wednesday, February 19, 2014
    7:30 – 8:30 a.m.


    Davis Wright Tremaine
    1201 Third Avenue Suite 2200
    Seattle, WA 98101

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